A considerable escalation in the level of violent and vandalistic acts against Jewish individuals, sites and private property was recorded in 2012. In-your-face harassment, directed mainly against visible Jews, continues to be a troubling phenomenon, particularly in Western Europe, North America and Australia. The rise in numbers of violent and vandalistic acts follows two years in which the figures declined considerably after the peak of 2009. The combined number of
686 incidents of physical violence, direct threats and major acts of vandalism represents an increase of about 30 percent over the 2011 figure of 526. There were 43 attacks with weapons (6 percent); 98 without a weapon (14 percent); 6 cases of arson (one percent); 166 direct threats to Jewish lives (24 percent), and 373 cases of vandalism (55 percent). Two hundred-and-seventythree attacks were perpetrated against individuals (40 percent); 102 against synagogues (15
percent); 59 against community buildings, including schools and kindergartens (8 percent); and 89 (13 percent) against cemeteries and monuments; 163 private properties were damaged (24 percent). Most of these acts (510) took place in France (200 cases), the US (99), the UK (84), Canada (74) and Australia (53), where the largest Jewish communities outside Israel reside.